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Quantum entanglement is the now well-documented idea that two tiny particles can be paired and separated, yet remain intimately and instantly connected across vast distances. By the laws of physics, two particles can get entangled with a binary, yes-or-no-like property or state, such as spin or phase polarization. But that state remains fuzzy — or in "superposition" — until one particle is measured.

Then at the exact moment of observation, even if the particles are separated by light-years of space , the other particle takes on the opposite state of its twin.

To understand this concept, imagine each entangled particle were a box containing a cat. The cat inside would be both alive and dead at the same time — that is, until someone opened one of the boxes. If the cat seen in one box was alive, then the cat in the other box would have to be dead or vice versa.


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Einstein thought this teleportation-like effect was so absurd that he described it as "spooky action at a distance. One of the latest studies to prove it , published in February , used year-old starlight to show that two particles couldn't "cheat" at the moment of entanglement and share a state before being measured. How and why small particles can get entangled makes no sense in the context of our everyday lives.

Quantum entanglement 101

At tiny scales, the universe appears to play by different rules, many of which are paradoxical and defy reason. In some quantum-mechanical scenarios, for instance, an effect doesn't always follow a cause; the effect can, in fact, happen before its cause occurs. No one should be blamed for being confused by quantum mechanics, Davis said, since "we didn't evolve to understand" the theory and its counterintuitive ramifications.

In all those decades, however, no one had captured an image of entangled particles. So that is what Moreau and his colleagues set out to do. Researchers used ultraviolet lasers, polarizing filters, sensors, and other equipment to photograph quantum entanglement for the first time. Still, given how fragile entanglement is, Lloyd did not expect quantum illumination to ever work.

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Lloyd admits this finding is baffling—and not just to him. As a possible explanation, Lloyd suggests that although entanglement between the photons might technically be completely lost, some hint of it may remain intact after a measurement.

Light from ancient quasars helps confirm quantum entanglement

If quantum illumination works, Lloyd suggests it could boost the sensitivity of radar and x-ray systems as well as optical telecommunications and microscopy by a millionfold or more. It could also lead to stealthier military scanners because they could work even when using weaker signals, making them easier to conceal from adversaries.

What can Schrödinger's cat teach us about quantum mechanics? - Josh Samani

Lloyd and his colleagues detailed a proposal for practical implementation of quantum illumination in a paper submitted in to Physical Review Letters building off theoretical work presented in the September 12 Science. Actually proving this effect may be the real challenge.

One ray illuminates the object, and the other serves as a reference. Still, Lloyd predicts experimental tests of this scheme might come later this year. Besides boosting imaging sensitivity, the effect might confer benefits on quantum computing or quantum cryptography, Kumar suspects.


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During the s, venerable theoretical physicist Albert Einstein returned to the field of quantum mechanics, which his theories of relativity helped to create. And now, for the first time ever, a team of physicists from the University of Glasgow took an image of a form of quantum entanglement aka.

Scientists Capture Photographic Proof of Quantum Entanglement - ExtremeTech

Bell entanglement at work. In so doing, they managed to capture the first piece of visual evidence of a phenomenon that baffled even Einstein himself. The study was led by Dr. Quantum entanglement describes the phenomenon where two particles which interact with each other can remain connected, instantaneously sharing their physical states no matter how far apart they are.