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In fact, electric cars appeared long before the internal-combustion sort, and dreamers have never stopped trying to make them work both on the road and as a business proposition.

Early Motoring' - The Electric Car - John Scott Montagu - Google Buku

No horse nor ox, yet it moves! Another Scot, Robert Davidson of Aberdeen, built a prototype electric locomotive in A bigger, better version, demonstrated in , could go 1. Then it needed new batteries. Batteries that could be recharged came along in , making the electric-car idea more viable. Around , inventor Thomas Parker helped deploy electric-powered trams and built prototype electric cars in England. It appeared in a city parade in , according to the Des Moines Register. With front-wheel drive, 4 horsepower, and a reported top speed of 20 mph, it had 24 battery cells that needed recharging every 50 miles.

Is that not a great name? It belongs to the first commercially viable EV effort. Philadelphians Pedro Salom and Henry G. Morris adapted technology from battery-electric street cars and boats and got a patent in Electrobats and another electric by Riker won a series of five-mile sprint races against gasoline Duryea automobiles in Having built a few electric Hansom cabs [upper right] to compete with the horse-drawn vehicles then serving New York, they sold that idea to Issac L. He in turn attracted big-money investors and partners and by the early s, they had more than electric cabs operating in New York with smaller fleets in Boston, Baltimore, and other eastern cities.

In New York, the downtime it took to recharge batteries was addressed by converting an ice arena into a battery-swapping station where a cab could drive in, have its spent batteries replaced with a recharged set, and move on out. Brilliant, but like many a startup, it expanded too quickly, ran into unforeseen conflicts among investors and partners, and the whole taxi venture had collapsed by Its manufacturing partner, Pope also a gasoline-car pioneer , took the technology and applied a name from its thriving bicycle business, Columbia, to a run of cars for public sale.

Columbia [bottom right] reached the units-built milestone well before those visionary mass-manufacturers in Detroit, Ransom Olds and Henry Ford, got up to speed. Electric cars proved their mettle in early motorsports. A pair of direct-drive kW motors, running at volts drawing amps each about 67 horsepower , propelled the torpedo-shaped machine crafted from a lightweight aluminum alloy called partinium. The late 19th and early 20th century simply bubbles with automotive invention all over the globe. The limited market for cars, still mostly expensive toys for rich folk, saw steam power dominant, electric cars next, and gasoline vehicles bringing up the rear.

Some brand names still familiar today dabbled in electrics during this era. Ransom Eli Olds built a short run of electric horseless carriages before devising the first mass-market Oldsmobile cars—the one known electric survivor [bottom right] is in a museum in Lansing, Michigan, which became home to Oldsmobile after a fire in Mr. He built no electrics in Lansing, but General Motors would. Another one-off museum piece is the Egger-Lohner C.

Edison and his camping buddy Henry Ford also tried their hand at an electric car and built at least one prototype before both decided that the gasoline engine had a more promising future. One factor was that electricity was not yet widely available outside city centers, severely limiting the market for cars tied to that infrastructure.

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Drivers could carry spare cans of gasoline for long journeys, but spare batteries were a lot heavier per unit of energy. McKinley survived the gunshot but developed gangrene in the wound and died eight days later. It could go 25 mph with a range of 80 miles, but by the time this Detroit Electric was built in, yes, Detroit , the writing was on the wall for the early electric business and this company in particular.

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The company started in and did well in competition against Baker and Milburn electric cars, even though those two companies were more innovative. Even as internal-combustion cars began to win the technology race, electric cars maintained a market particularly in the cities where their silent operation and ease-of-use appealed to many. All the same, it built more than 35, vehicles between and Gasoline won the technology battle before World War II, and most electric-car makers had either converted to internal combustion or gone out of business. But EVs still had their strengths, especially for the low-speed, short-range uses typical of urban centers.

It could do about 20 mph with a range of 40 miles on lead-acid batteries, good enough for taxi duty just as electric cars had done in New York 50 years earlier. Interest in electric cars never really disappeared, and this was one result of people thinking it should work. Henney, a custom coachworks that produced hearses, ambulances, and limousines, often for Packard, was casting around for more diversified business when Packard was dying.

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Put a battery company and a coachworks under one roof and what's more natural than to give electric-car production a shot? This was upgraded to 72 volts for , raising speed to a more practical 60 mph and range to 60 miles. The speed controller, employing diodes and relays, was pretty advanced for the time.

It built about chassis, but only 47 completed cars were sold. Sales mostly went to utility-company fleets. A handful survive in collections today. General Motors kept experimenting with electric cars, and this Electrovair II was one result. Exotic silver-zinc batteries gave it volts to feed into a hp AC induction drive motor.

In , Ralph Nader testified before a U. Senate committee and complained that electric cars were viable, that he knew General Electric could produce a car that would go miles on a charge at up to 80 mph. He suggested GE was in cahoots with the auto and oil industries to hide this technology.

In , GE showed us what it could do: The Delta experimental electric car was repulsively ugly, but it could achieve 55 mph and had 40 miles of range using nickel-iron batteries. The same year, Ford showed an experimental electric car with even more expensive nickel-cadmium batteries that could do no better. There were four DC motors, one in each wheel, making one-quarter horsepower apiece and capable of up to 10, rpm. First deployed on the Apollo 15 mission in as shown here , the LRV used non-rechargeable silver-zinc potassium hydroxide batteries with a stated capacity of amp-hours.

Steering at both axles also was by electric motor drawing on the same batteries.

Further electric reading

Built of aluminum tubes and foldable in the center to stow onboard the Apollo lunar lander, it weighed pounds in Earth's gravity without passengers, whose space suits had to be redesigned so they could sit in it. The LRV could go 8 mph in theory, but the lunar surface demanded more cautious speed.

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On Apollo 15, it moved about 17 miles over 3 hours, averaging less than 6 mph. On Apollo 17, the last lunar mission, the LRV traveled about 22 miles total and the astronauts got nearly 5 miles away from their landing module. Truly a glorified golf cart, the Citicar [left] had two doors, two seats, a 2. Top speed: about 25 mph. Range was said to be 40 miles.

Sebring-Vanguard built some of these cheesy wedges through , after which founder Robert G. Beaumont sold to Commuter Vehicles, Inc. The Comuta-Car [top right] had batteries in its bumpers and a 6-hp motor. The most capable was built to meet a government contract for postal delivery—featuring right-hand drive with a sliding door [bottom right], it got a hp motor, a volt battery pack, and a transmission with three speeds. All told, the Sebring-Vanguard and Commuter Vehicles companies produced units, making it the largest electric-car producer in America since the end of World War II, a distinction it would maintain until As unlovable as a Chevrolet Chevette was in , GM researchers decided to see what it could do if converted to electric propulsion.

The Electrovette was supposed to have had the latest nickel-zinc batteries, but the prototypes used standard lead-acid. These were installed in place of the rear seat. At 30 mph, it could go as far as 50 miles, but the newer batteries were supposed to double that range. What were they thinking? While other automakers did just that, making the likes of the Toyota RAV4 EV, GM shot for the moon, applying all the technology it could bring to bear with aims of establishing industry leadership with the Impact concept car.

The production version, the GM EV1, had all the latest tech except for relying on lead-acid batteries to keep costs within reason after splurging on alloy this and magnesium that, an induction-charging system, and seriously advanced electronics to manage the efficient AC motor.

A lot went into the inverter, which managed changing DC battery power to AC for the motor to use and AC back to DC to recharge batteries in regeneration mode. To maximize performance, EV1 was a tiny two-seater, but it launched into a marketplace surging on giant SUVs. Aside from true believers, people did not embrace it. About were leased in Los Angeles, Tucson, and Phoenix between and the last cars were built in GM took a big hit on public image when it refused to sell the cars to the leaseholders and crushed most of them somehow, Francis Ford Coppola held onto his , but the technological experience was brought to bear on current models like the extended-range EV Chevrolet Volt and the fully electric Bolt.

He provided GM with much of the electric-related genius that made the Impact concept and subsequent EV1 work properly, including contributions to its inverter. There are 1, currently being used on the road with more than a quarter-of-a-million miles on the clock. The concept of using recycled car parts for repairs might sound foreign, but it's fairly common in countries like France, Australia, New Zealand and the US.

Environment Agency bosses have been branded 'eco-hypocrites' for running a fleet of more than 3, diesel vehicles - and just 27 pure electric ones. Town halls across the UK will be encouraged to grant incentives to cars with the green plates, such as free or cheaper parking. Three designs are being considered pictured right , the most radical of which is an all-green plate. If approved, it will be the first major change in plate design since , when silver-on-black plates were replaced with today's yellow and white reflective versions.

The other two proposed designs feature a green stripe and green dot on the traditional plate. The Dynamo taxi pictured has been given the green light by Transport for London as part of an attempt to slash carbon emissions in the city. The year-old man is from Bradford in West Yorkshire and managed to get 78 points over the last four years. The intrepid pair wearing body armour also found a huge machete and drugs at the premises on the Isle of Dogs in East London which was packed with bikes being disassembled.

Joe Achilles, 40, recorded himself driving at nearly mph along the A57 Snake Pass in the Derbyshire area, before uploading it to Facebook.

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Video was analysed and showed 11 speeds. These incredible aerial photos show the fleet left at the Bentley Automotive Factory in Crewe, Cheshire, were thousands are working to manufacture the new Flying Spur model.


Residents who live close to the site say the SUVs bottom-right and saloons are protected at all times by a fence that encircles the perimeter as well as a team of security staff. Barbara Fry, 73, was initially accused of doing 36mph in her Honda in a 30mph zone on a busy stretch of road at Winterbourne Abbas in Dorset.

Unlike Tesla's rumored pickup truck, Simone Giertz made hers by transforming a Model 3 sedan. DVSA said there are two common methods used by people to cheat the driving theory exam: using Bluetooth headsets inset to call-in correct answers from someone outside the examination room or have another person sit the test under their name. Cases of learners attempting to con their theory exams are likely to increase again this year, warns Auto Express.

More than 1, learners have been suspected for cheating already in the first five months of this financial year. The Model 3 also bagged gongs for the best electric model, best company car and a safety award having aced the industry's crash tests.