I slide into my chair, the luxury leather an exact imprint of my middle-aged ass. In front of me rests a perfect orange. This orange-for-breakfast ritual began as a teenager when I visited an orchard in Georgia with my father. His stories about his father who had lived in Florida inflamed my imagination with the vision of miles and miles of orange groves, now covered by a warm blanket of sea water. The ritual no longer gives me pleasure. I throw the pulpy, half-eaten mess on the floor. The fibrous pile mars the immaculate floor until a cleaning drone quietly devours it.
I know this. I invented the learning algorithm that made her intonation realistic. I take a deep breath, wanting to forget that yesterday, my only daughter cut me off her social feed. I had questioned her judgment. Off her feed, I have no way of contacting her.
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She laughed. I was thinking harmful thoughts when Sheila backed me off the edge with a virtual show room full of luxury cars. I bought one. Was I happy when I drove it around the neighborhood?
I push away from the table, claustrophobic in this huge house I share with exactly nobody. Was perfect. How can an AI change so much? I slam the door, but she controls it. They save us now and they exalt us hereafter, if we will honor them. I know that this protection is given for I, too, have realized it, as have thousands of others who have remembered their obligations.
Information compiled by Kellene Ricks. All rights reserved. Peter 1 Peter and St. John 1 John the Modernists are not justified in contending that "the dogma of Christ's expiatory death is not evangelic but Pauline" prop. Twice 1 Corinthians , St.
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Paul disclaims the authorship of the dogma. He is, however, of all the New Testament writers, the best expounder of it. The redeeming sacrifice of Jesus is the theme and burden of the whole Epistle to the Hebrews' and in the other Epistles which the most exacting critics regard as surely Pauline, there is all but a set theory. The main passage is Romans sq. Being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption, that is in Christ Jesus , Whom God hath proposed to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood, to the shewing of his justice , for the remission of former sins.
The early Fathers, engrossed as they were by the problems of Christology have added but little to the soteriology of the Gospel and St. It is not true , however, to say with Ritschl " Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und Versohnung", Bonn, , Harnack "Precis de l'histoire des dogmes", tr.
Paris , , Sabatier "La doctrine de l'expiation et son evolution historique", Paris, that they viewed Redemption only as the deification of humanity through incarnation and knew nothing of Christ's vicarious satisfaction. The two tendencies run side by side with an occasional contact, but at no time did the former completely absorb the latter, and in course of time , the realistic view became preponderant" Le dogme de la redemption, p.
Anselm's famous treatise "Cur Deus homo" may be taken as the first systematic presentation of the doctrine of Redemption, and, apart from the exaggeration noted above, contains the synthesis which became dominant in Catholic theology. Far from being adverse to the satisfactio vicaria popularized by St.
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Anselm , the early Reformers accepted it without question and even went so far as to suppose that Christ endured the pains of hell in our place. If we except the erratic views of Abelard , Socinus d. He was and is still followed by the Rationalist School which sees in the traditional theory all but defined by the Church , a spirit of vindictiveness unworthy of God and a subversion of justice in substituting the innocent for the guilty.
The charge of vindictiveness, a piece of gross anthropomorphism , comes from confounding the sin of revenge and the virtue of justice. The charge of injustice ignores the fact that Jesus , the juridical head of mankind Ephesians , voluntarily offered Himself John , that we might be saved by the grace of one Saviour even as we had been lost by the fault of the one Adam Romans It would be a crude conception indeed to suppose that the guilt or culpability of men passed from the consciences of men to the conscience of Christ : the penalty alone was voluntarily assumed by the Redeemer and, in paying it, He washed away our sins and restored us to our former supernatural state and destination.
Merits of Christ Satisfaction is not the only object and value of Christ's theandric operations and sufferings; for these, beside placating God , also benefit man in several ways. They possess, in the first place, the power of impetration or intercession which is proper to prayer , according to John : "And I knew that thou hearest me always.
That merit, or the quality which makes human acts worthy of a reward at the hands of another, attaches to the works of the Redeemer, is apparent from the easily ascertained presence in them of the usual conditions of merit, namely the wayfarer state John ; moral liberty John ; conformity to the ethical standard John ; and Divine promise Isaiah Christ merited for Himself, not indeed grace nor essential glory which were both attached and due to the Hypostatic Union , but accidental honour Hebrews and the exaltation of His name Philippians He also merited for us.
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Such Biblical phrases as to receive "of his fulness" John , to be blessed with His blessings Ephesians , to be made alive in Him 1 Corinthians , to owe Him our eternal salvation Hebrews clearly imply a communication from Him to us and that at least by way of merit. V, cc. Canon iii of Session V says anathema to whoever claims that original sin is cancelled otherwise than by the merits of one Mediator, Our Lord Jesus Christ , and canon x of Session VI defines that man cannot merit without the justice through which Christ merited our justification. The objects of Christ's merits for us are the supernatural gifts lost by sin , that is, grace John and salvation 1 Corinthians ; the preternatural gifts enjoyed by our first parents in the state of innocence are not, at least in this world, restored by the merits of Redemption, as Christ wishes us to suffer with Him in order that we may be glorified with Him Romans Thomas explaining how Christ's merits pass on to us, says: Christ merits for others as other men in the state of grace merit for themselves III With us merits are essentially personal.
Not so with Christ who, being the head of our race Ephesians - , has, on that score, the unique prerogative of communicating to the subordinate personal members the Divine life whose source He is. It is true that the Redeemer associates others to Himself "For the perfecting of the saints ,. All admit, in Christ's meritorious actions, a moral influence moving God to confer on us the grace through which we merit.
Is that influence merely moral or does it effectively concur in the production of grace? From such passages as Luke , "virtue went out from him", the Greek Fathers insist much on the dynamis zoopoios or vis vivifica , of the Sacred Humanity, and St. Thomas III speaks of a sort of efficientia whereby the actions and passions of Christ , as vehicle of the Divine power, cause grace by way of instrumental force.
Those two modes of action do not exclude each other: the same act or set of acts of Christ may be and probably is endowed with twofold efficiency, meritorious on account of Christ's personal dignity, dynamic on account of His investment with Divine power.
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Adequacy of redemption Redemption is styled by the "Catechism of the Council of Trent" 1, v, 15 "complete, integral in all points, perfect and truly admirable". Such is the teaching of St. Paul : "where sin abounded, grace did more abound" Romans , that is, evil as the effects of sin are, they are more than compensated by the fruits of Redemption.
Commenting on that passage St. Chrysostom Hom. X in Rom. The true reason for the adequacy and even superabundance of Redemption is given by St. Cyril of Alexandria : "One died for all. Anselm Cur Deus homo, II, xviii is probably the first writer who used the word "infinite," in connection with the value of Redemption: "ut sufficere possit ad solvendum quod pro peccatis totius mundi debetur et plus in infinitum". This way of speaking was strongly opposed by John Duns Scotus and his school on the double plea that the Humanity of Christ is finite and that the qualification of infinite would make all Christ's actions equal and place each of them on the same level with His sublime surrender in the Garden and on Calvary.
However the word and the idea passed into current theology and were even officially adopted by Clement VI Extravag. Unigenitus, V, IX, 2 , the reason given by the latter, "propter unionem ad Verbum", being the identical one adduced by the Fathers. If It is true that; according to the axiom "actiones sunt suppositorum", the value of actions is measured by the dignity of the person who performs them and whose expression and coefficient they are, then the theandric operations must be styled and are infinite because they proceed from an infinite person.
Scotus's theory wherein the infinite intrinsic worth of the theandric operations is replaced by the extrinsic acceptation of God , is not altogether proof against the charge of Nestorianism leveled at it by Catholics like Schwane and Rationalists like Harnack. His arguments proceed from a double confusion between the person and the nature, between the agent and the objective conditions of the act. The Sacred Humanity of Christ is, no doubt the immediate principle of Christ's satisfactions and merits, but that principle principium quo being subordinate to the Person of the Word principium quod , borrows from it the ultimate and fixed value, in the present case infinite , of the actions it performs.
On the other hand, there is in Christ's actions, as in our own, a double aspect, the personal and the objective: in the first aspect only are they uniform and equal while, viewed objectively, they must needs vary with the nature, circumstances, and finality of the act.